"Every coin has two sides. The biggest advantage is the improvement of living condition and rise in incomes. The disadvantage is that something is coming between children and parents. We’re no longer that close."
Liu Wen Xia
Liu Wen Xia was born in a small farming village near the city of Ma Anshan in eastern Anhui Province. She is twenty-eight years old and came to Shanghai with her husband six years ago, leaving her infant son behind to be raised by her mother. She and her husband make and sell Cong You Bing (scallion pancakes) in a small roadside shop across the street from the Temple Square in Zhudi.
A scallion pancake (Chinese: 葱 油 饼; pinyin: cōngyóubǐng) is a Chinese savory unleavened flatbread folded with oil and minced scallions (green onions). Unlike Western pancakes, it is made from dough instead of batter. Variations exist on the basic method of preparation that incorporate other flavors and fillings.
Scallion pancakes are served both as street food and as a restaurant dish. They are also sold commercially, either fresh or frozen in plastic packages (often in Asian supermarkets).
More on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scallion_pancake
Ma'anshan (simplified Chinese: 马鞍山; traditional Chinese: 馬鞍山; pinyin: Mǎ'ānshān), also written as Maanshan, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of Anhui province in Eastern China. An industrial city stretching across the Yangtze River, Ma'anshan borders Hefei to the west, Wuhu to the southwest, and Nanjing to the east. It is a core city of the Nanjing Metropolitan Circle.
As of the 2010 census, Ma'anshan was home to 2,202,899 inhabitants, of whom 1,366,302 lived in the built-up area made of three urban districts and Dangtu County, which is largely urbanized. After the August 2011 administrative re-regionalization of Anhui Province, its population rose to 2.20 million, as two additional counties (He and Hanshan) were placed under its administration.
The south bank of the Yangtze River from Ma'anshan upstream for 240 km (150 mi), has long been a mining area. The coming of a railroad and the opening of the Huai-nan coalfield in the 1930s made it possible for the Japanese to open an iron and steel works in 1938. Although destroyed at the end of the Second World War, the industries were restored to production in 1953, and Ma'anshan grew rapidly under the Communists' first and second Five-Year Plans. Ma'anshan also has sulfur and limestone mines, and chemical and cement factories. In 1954, Ma'anshan was elevated to town level, and, in Oct. 12, 1956, Ma'anshan City was declared to be founded.
More on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma%27anshan
Rural to Urban Migration in China
Internal migration in the People's Republic of China is one of the most extensive in the world according to the International Labour Organization. In fact, research done by Kam Wing Chan of the University of Washington suggests that "In the 30 years since 1979, China's urban population has grown by about 440 million to 622 million in 2009. Of the 440 million increase, about 340 million was attributable to net migration and urban reclassification. Even if only half of that increase was migration, the volume of rural-urban migration in such a short period is likely the largest in human history." Migrants in China are commonly members of a floating population, which refers primarily to migrants in China without local household registration status through the Chinese Hukou system. In general, rural-urban migrant workers are most excluded from local educational resources, citywide social welfare programs and many jobs because of their lack of hukou status. Migrant workers are not necessarily rural workers; they can simply be people living in urban areas with rural household registration.
China's government influences the pattern of urbanization through the Hukou permanent residence registration system, land-sale policies, infrastructure investment and the incentives offered to local government officials. The other factors influencing migration of people from rural provincial areas to large cities are employment, education, business opportunities and higher standard of living.
More on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migration_in_China